September 16, 2019

Juris Audzijonis, Dieva dārzs "Jūras" / God's Garden "Jūras"

entry gate of the park
this picture and the next one from Facebook

Vecumnieki is a community in Latvia of around 2100 inhabitants, located some 50 km south of the country's capital Riga. In the rural area north-west of the community a collection of wooden creations catches the eye. This is Juris Audzijonis' art environment generally known as Jūras, God's Garden, a park with a variety of single handedly made wooden and metal creations.

Life and works

When he was in his early fifties the life of Jūris Audzijonis, who was born in 1942 or 1943, took a special turn. During a cardiac arrest that had hit him, he had a beautiful vision that he experienced as the divine light that brought him back to life.

Prior to this experience he was not a believer, but now he was converted to the Christian faith, and moreover, he also felt inspired to propagate that belief by making and installing creations that reflected that belief.

In 1996 Audzijonis started a project that has kept him busy until now (2019) and that has resulted in a park-like art environment that includes single-handedly crafted wooden sculptures, metal assemblies and singular architecture in various forms.

a sculpture of Our Lady
this picture an the next ones screenprints from the video 
referred to in the documentation

As the picture of the entrance (at the top of this text) shows, Jūras is the original name of the site. However, after a journalist, with the approval of Audzijonis, designated the site as God's garden, this name was widely used in addition to the original name.

The most pronounced reference to the Christian faith in this art environment is the life-sized sculpture of Jesus on the cross, placed directly next to the main entrance of the site.

Then there is a wooden sculpture of the Virgin Mary, also life-sized, about which the story goes that a miracle happened with this sculpture when two holes in the wood near the heart opened and resin began to flow out of those holes.

The Christian character of the site is also expressed in the built structures Audzijonis created, first of all a number of churches or other places of worship, such as the one as in above picture with towers at the front- and backside, that are covered with hexagonal spires.

One of the built structures is a small wooden prayer house where at most one visitor can sit on a chair (that turns around three times) to pray or meditate.

One day a number of students came to visit the garden, waiting patiently in a row at this prayer house. Audzijonis wondered what happened, but it turned out that the students had to take an exam the next day and came to ask for a blessing.

Among the buildings in the capacity of a church there are large ones such as the aforementioned church with the four towers, but also small ones, such as the one in the picture above built by  Audzijonis for his granddaughter Freya on the occasion of her fifth birthday.

Freya lives in Vienna and does not speak Latvian, just as Audzijonis does not speak German, so her mother, Audzijonis' daughter, has to assist as interpreter.

Other striking wooden constructions in this art environment are an above pictured elongated bridge that crosses a pond ........

..... and a large-scale seesaw pictured above, suitable not just for two children, but also for two adults, a device that when used exerts a calming effect on the participating persons.

Above picture shows the spire of the tower of the large wooden church with four towers crowned with an installation formed by rotating metal items, typically assembled by using leftovers, in this case metal pans

The site has a variety of such mobile items. For example, there is a high rising towery structure with an immobile pedestal and an upper part - provided with metal protrusions in the form of blades - that can rotate in its entirety.

And there is a wooden gazebo that also can turn around in its entirety.

Above picture of an all metal windmill with blades that turn in the wind, shows that Audzijonis who in reviews is mostly presented as a woodcrafter, also knows about handling metal parts.

* Account of the site on Facebook 
* Article (August 2016) by Antra Gabre on website NRA.LV
Video (September 2017, 3'19", You Tube) by Latvian Time 

Juris Audzijonis  
God's Garden "Jūras"
on the P89 road, just outside the community
Vecumnieki, Latvia
the site can be visited on appointment (see FB account)
donation welcome

August 27, 2019

David and Mary Foley, Shell cottage

the entrance of the house in 1966
this screenprint and the one of Mary (below) are stills  
from the video shot by Ireland TV in 1966

The photo above shows the entrance to the Shell Cottage, a residential home in the coastal town and harbour Dungarvan in County Waterford on the south coast of Ireland. transformed by its inhabitants Mary and David Foley into an art environment.

The Shell Cottage is a simple rectangular house with a hipped roof. At the front there is a central door with bay windows on both sides and the small yard around the house is surrounded by a low wall with an entrance gate in the middle.

Captain David Foley
picture from weblog Abbeyside Heritage Archive

Life and works

David Foley was born in Dungarvan, in 1894 or 1893. It has been reported that in 1915 at age 21 he had his first voyage at sea with the schooner Catherine Ellen. Later he would become captain of a ship named Harvey. The Dungarvan fleet in those years was mainly engaged in transporting merchandise such as coal and agricultural products.

The internet does not state in which year David Foley married Mary, but if this happened when both were in their twenties, they would have been married for some thirty or forty years when in 1954 the couple started to decorate their house.

Mary Foley (screenprint 1966)

David Foley meanwhile was retired and the couple initially had the intention just to create a shrine in honor of Our Lady. But as so often happens in the field of art environments, once started they could not stop and so it became a project that kept them busy for many years to come.

David Foley has been active in decorating most exterior walls of the property with shell decorations until he died in 1962. After his death Mary Foley has continued the project in the following years. A film about the site made in 1966 by Ireland TV shows that in that year the project had reached its final size and mainly required maintenance.

Mary Foley died in July 1970.

Some features of Shell Cottage

The way in which the decorations of the Shell Cottage are processed has some specific characteristics.

the schooner Catherine Ellen
this picture and the next four are screen prints
from the video made in 2015 (see documentation)

So there are some distinctly realistic representations of ships that have played an important role in Foley's life, namely the schooner Catherine Ellen on which he started his career as a young man .....

...... and the ship named Harvey from which he was the captain.

Then this art environment has a large number of wall decorations that are encased in similar, almost square frames.

The shells may have been arranged into a figurative or realistic scene (such as a vase or a bird)  against a dark background as in the picture above.

But there are also many parts where the shells are arranged against a light background, brightened up with countless colorful small items, as in above picture.

The fact that the decorations are set in almost uniform frames is due to the method of preparation. The designs would be drawn on paper and then transferred to a standard sized cardboard that was used as a template for the decoration to be applied.

antique statuettes

Arrangements of antique statuettes are a final feature of this art environment.

These statuettes are particularly placed (and firmly anchored) on the low walls to the left and the right of the house that surrounds the yard.

Actual situation of this art environment

It is not known whether, after Mary Foley died, there were heirs and the property remained within the family. Anyway the videos from 2007 and 2015 show that the site has continued to exist in almost the same capacity as in the 1960s and 1970s.

picture (2019) courtesy of Tiramisu Bootfighter

There is also photo material on Facebook from August 2019 by Tiramisu Bootfighter (La Valise, Galerie Ambulante), that shows that the site was extant at the time this post was published,

* Ireland TV in 1966 interviewed Mary Foley, but the video in B/W -on this website-  cannot be embedded here, which is a pity because it has shots of the decorations as in 1966, just as the website has a short description of the site
* Abbeyside Heritage Archive weblog, december 2011, has a short referral to David Foley
* The website Friends of Purton has the story of the ship Catherine Ellen and its crew, including David Foley (the Shell Cottage is also referred to)

* Video (March 2007) by papsey no 1 (You Tube, 5'03", relevant part starts at 2'40")

* Video (April 2015) by airborne 118 Behind Camera (You Tube, 10'20", relevant part starts at 2'02")\

David and Mary Foley 
Shell cottage
Sarsfield St, Abbeyside, Dungarvan, Co. Waterford, Ireland
can be seen from the street

August 21, 2019

Václav Tomášek, Kaplica Czaszek/Skull chapel

the interior of the chapel seen towards the altar
picture from Wikimedia Commons 

Among the various ossuaries that Europe knows, there are some with such an arrangement of skulls and bones that one can speak of an art environment. This weblog already has a post about the ossuary in Sedlec, Czech Republic, a site that could rank as the most decorative in its genre

The following post is dedicated to the ossuary in Czermna, which was originally on Czech territory, but -due to border corrections- is now in Poland.

exterior of the chapel
this picture (by Merlin) also from Wikimedia Commons

Eighteen years of creative labor by a priest and a grave digger

When in the mid 1770's Bohemian local parish priest Václav Tomášek (? - 1804) made a walk in the fields around Czermna on some spot he stumbled upon the bones of a buried person and he found out that this spot contained a mass grave. 

And this was not the only one in the area. Wars had raged there, such as the Thirty Years War (1618–1648) and three Silesian Wars (1740–1763). The fallen soldiers were buried collectively in mass graves, as well as victims of cholera epidemics and massive food shortages among the local population.

Priest Tomášek came up with the idea that the remains should be cleared and housed in an ossuary in a small chapel to be built between the existing St Bartholomew's village church and the tower standing apart from it.

With the financial support of the local benefactor Leopold von Leslie, the chapel could be built. In 1776 the building was ready and Tomášek, together with grave digger J. Langer. started the design of the ossuary. a project that would last until 1794.

this picture and the next one by the 
Polish department of foreign affairs

The decorative aspects of this ossuary are much less pronounced than those of the site in Sedlec, but it can be recognized that Tomášek has tried to make specific decorative arrangements when adding the around 3000 skulls to the ossuary.

As can be seen in the first picture of this post, the standing wall behind the altar is largely filled with skulls in a coherent uniform whole. This picture also shows that the top of the display of skeleton parts almost exclusively consists of an arrangement of crossing bones. The picture below shows the crossing bones in more detail.

A skull with two long bones crossed below it manifests a typical symbol of death (and can have a strong warning character, as in a pirate flag). Unlike the ossuary in Sedlec, the photos of the ossuary in Czaszek.hardly show this arrangement.

Along the walls the skulls predominantly have been placed in horizontal rows amidst larger rows consisting of smaller parts of the skeletons.

In all arrangements the repetitive aspect is clearly present, and for the rest the total presentation is mainly characterized by simplicity, which can also be an aversion to excess.

This simplicity also applies to the other elements in the interior. There is a simple altar, with some skulls on it, including that of Václav Tomášek. There are also two wooden sculptures of angels, one with the Latin inscription Arise from the dead, the other with the inscription Go to the judgment.

In addition to the 3000 skulls and associated bones that have been incorporated into the interior, a room beneath the chapel accommodates 21000 other remains.

Once a year, at midnight from 14 to 15 August, a mass is served in the chapel for those whose remains have found their last rest in this chapel.

* A lot of websites approach the chapel from a touristic point of view and mostly repeat the same texts, so here are just some informative sources:
* Article on Wikipedia
* Article on the website Henryk Tramp
* Article on the website Agaunews
* Video by geobeats (1'18", November 2013, You Tube)

* Video by Radio Wroclaw (4'28". June 2019, You Tube)

Václav Tomášek 
Chapel of Skulls 
Czermna, Kłodzko County, Lower Silesia, Poland
can be visited

August 16, 2019

Sean McKeown, Fairytale Houses Littleworld

 this picture and the next three courtesy of
La Valise, Galerie Ambulante

In the summer of 2019 when traveling through Northern Ireland with his galerie ambulante in the context of his project Grande Bretagne Insolite ¹, the Frenchman known as Tiramisu Bootfighter unexpectedly encountered an art environment in the capacity of an ensemble of life-size fairytale houses.

Life and works

This site, which taps into Ireland's heritage of myths and legends, was installed by Sean McKeown in the backyard of his house in the village of  Newtown-Crommelin, which is part of the Borough of Ballymena in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. 

McKeown was a bricklayer, who in 2015, at that time being unemployed, stumbled upon a large tree stump in his garden and felt inspired to pick up his tools to turn that stump into something magical and fairytale-like. 

He constructed a large scale fairytale house and liked doing this so much that he began a project that would keep him busy the following years and that resulted in the transformation of his backyard of about six and a half acres (some 20.000 m²) into an art environment with a series of wooden fairytale houses. 

He named his garden with fairytale houses Littleworld, opened it to the public, got publicity and soon the site became known as an attraction for school classes, families with children, tourists and other interested people.

McKeown in front of a full-sized fairytale house

The largest fairytale house, sometimes considered as the largest in the world, was made from a Red Sequoia tree. It has a little rounded door and small, quaint windows. Inside four adults can stay.

Using tree stumps from oak, beech or silver birch and unused remains of woodworking companies, up till now (2019) McKeown has constructed houses with a height of 9 to 15 feet (2,7 - 4,5 meters)

These fairytale houses are designed in such a way and provided with such small details that on the spot a fairytale-like atmosphere is evoked that appeals to the imagination, just as also often appears in the illustrations of fairytale books, for example as in the work of the english illustrator Arthur Rackham (1867-1939).


The pictures left and right above and especially the details in the picture below give an an idea of McKeon's working method to express the specific fairytale atmosphere.

this picture and the next two from Facebook
click to enlarge

McKeown is full of ideas, like at the time this post was published  (summer 2019) he is working out a plan to add a tunnel that starts at the main fairytale house plus some three more, one for each season, an arrangement that would become kind of a Disney World underground.

His plans include that the underground complex also has a sensory tunnel for disabled children and all together the new complex of  fairytale tunnels should rank as the largest in the whole of Ireland.

McKeown also manufactures miniature fairytale houses that visitors to the site can purchase, an offer that some visitors enthusiastically use to come into possession of a handmade fairytale house to decorate their own house or garden.

* Littleworld on Facebook
* Regional journal Irish News (October 2016) with an article and separate a series of pictures
* Video (October 2016) by Irish News on Instagram
* Video (2'54", July 2019) by Brilliant Trails (a Northern Irish company designing clue based walking trails) and BBC Northern Ireland

¹ reports of the trip are published on Facebook, while photos taken during the trip can be found on Instagram via #grandebretagneinsolite 

Sean McKeown 
Fairytale Houses Littleworld
25 Old Cushendun Road
Ballymena BT43 6RJ, Antrim County, Northern Ireland, UK
visitors welcome

August 11, 2019

Johannes Ivakko, Veistoksia Radiomäen puistossa/Sculptures at Radiomäki Park

unless otherwise indicated 
pictures are courtesy of Raija Kallioinen

In the field of art environments it is not uncommon that after the death of the creator of a site, the creations get lost due to neglect of the site or sale of the property that houses it.

But luckily there are  exceptions. Art environments can retain their appearance in various ways, sometimes in part, as is apparent from the way Johannes Ivakko’s sculptures have been saved.

Life and works

Born in 1914 in Salmi on the Lunkula Island in the area of the Gulf of Finland, Johannes Ivakko as a young man became a fisherman who lived in Lunkula, a small village located in the north of the Lunkula Island.

In the 1930s there was much disagreement between Finland and the USSR over the course of the border between the two countries and at the beginning of 1939 the situation was so tense that Finand started building defenses in the area of the Gulf and evacuated residents of some islands, also the one where Ivakko lived.

On November 30, 1939, the Soviet Union did invade Finland indeed. In the following Winter War the Finns offered much resistance. but in March 1940 they had to surrender. The island where Ivakko lived would eventually become part of the Soviet Union.

Johannes Ivakko belonged to the evacuees who established themselves in the Päijät-Häme region. He settled in Lahti, a city some 100 km north of Helsinki. Here he would live for the rest of his life, working in various jobs, such as carrying out work for New Valamo monastery, working as a repair/service man, taking care of the maintenance of forests, doing the management of a campsite, and then he was also active as a fishing man.

a miniature wooden ensemble (Instagram)

In Lahti he also became active as a self-taught artist. First of all, he focused on making miniature wooden sculptures depicting objects, personalities and activities that reminded him of the Lunkula Isle where he was born and raised, for example a scene of a family seated around a table or a series of boats, both small ones and large fishing boats.

A selection of these creations has been exposed in 2005 in the Kiasma museum in Helsinki at the exposition In another world, the first major exposition of outsider art in Finland. Recently (in 2018) these small sculptures could be seen during an exposition at the Kokkola outsider art museum.

In 2013 a book has been published about the miniature sculptures: Niilo Kuikka, Kui ennen elettih Salmis, Johannes Ivakon pienoisteistokset kertovat (The way people used to live in Salmi, Johannes Ivakko's mini-sculptures tell).

the cover of Kuikka's book (Värtsi website)

Lifesize sculptures from concrete

Later Ivakko also began making lifesize sculptures from concrete, mainly portraying animals and personalities.

He had a workplace near his house in Myllypohja, one of Lahti’s neighbourhoods. The sculptures, once finished, would be displayed in the yard of the house.

It also has been reported on the internet that some of Ivakko’s sculptures have been displayed on several locations in the public area, like spots on the roadside and in markets. And some sculptures have got a place in the courtyard of the New Valamo Monastery in Heinävesi.

But currently the most important location, where the majority of Ivakko’s legacy of sculptures has been displayed, is the Radiomäki Park in Lahti.

It is a green, partly wooded area in the city where a sports accommodation is located, but also buildings and installations that traditionally are related to Finnish radio and television, such as the radio and television museum and a yard with a hill where dishes for telecommunications are installed.

At the foot of that hill a variety of Ivakko’s concrete sculptures has been exposed, as the photos in this post show.

One can see life- size sculptures of cows, horses, reindeer, elk, but also of smaller animals such as a dog, a fox or a cock.

There are also sculptures that depict personalities such as the farmer couple (close ups above) and a hunter confronting a bear and the farmers couple (pictures below).

When after Ivakko’s death it was not possible to preserve the arrangement of stone sculptures around Ivakko's house, the Lahti City Museum (which also has a lot of Ivakko’s mini-sculptures in their collection) took care of the concrete sculptures and found an excellent solution to expose them at the grounds of the Radiomäki Park, which can serve as an example for other communities in Europe.

* Entry on Facebook (#visitlahti)
* Pictures on Instagram (#johannesivakko)
* Article (November 2017) in weblog Tellun Tuulet
* Article (March 2014) on website Värtsi by Jouko Varonen about the book by Niilo Kuikka

Johannes Ivakko
Sculptures at Radiomäki Park
Radiomäenkatu 43
15100 Lahti, Päijät-Häme region, Southern Finland, Finland
can be visited

August 03, 2019

René Morice, Alignements des structures en pierre/Alignments of stone structures

picture (2017) courtesy of Sophie Lepetit
from her weblog

The above pictured structure of stacked stones, a creation by René Morice, is part of a large series of built stone structures, predominantly situated in roadside alignments.  

The following screenprints (via streetview, 2013) give an impression of the specific lay out of the component parts of this art environment, that is located in Kerbescond, part of the community of Pommerit-le-Vicomte in Brittany, France.

Taking the first road left on the road from Pommerit-le-Vicomte to Saint-Gilles-les-Bis (D65), one soon arrives at a first triangular part of the line-up, left from the road just before a junction.

Going left at the junction one passes by Morice's farm on the right, with an arrangement of stone structures at the front of the living house, and also ....

..... at the left of the road, opposite the living house,  another triangular arrangement of structures ....

......and then past the farm the next parts of this art environment are located left and right of the road, with the alignment on the left side of the road extending approximately 200 meters. 

Life and works

Born in 1930 René Morice became a farmer living in the outskirts of Pommerit-le-Vicomte, a small community of some 1800 inhabitants near Guingamp in the Breton department Côtes-d’Armor

Once retired, probably around the turn of the century, he experienced that he had little left to do and so in 2005 he started cleaning up the space around the farm where he lived. In the process, he began to tidy up a fountain in front of the farm, leaving a pile of stones that somehow put him in a creative mood

one of the numerous stone structures
this picture and the next two (2017) courtesy of Sophie Lepetit

So Morice started to put bricks together, using cement, forming structures that sometimes depict a certain character, and sometimes only have a spatial shape. He made single, stand-alone structures, but usually he assembled a number of structures into ensembles, sometimes using iron as a connecting material. 

 A number of ensembles and stand-alone structure are arranged in more or less triangular spaces near the farm, but it is a special feature of this art environment that most stone structure are arranged along the road in alignments.

This can of course be related to the space that Morice had at his disposal, but it is also tempting to see a relationship with the alignments of neolithic stones that form a characteristic (and famous) spatial element in Brittany.

Other observers, watching the creations in line, got an association with a crowd, gathered at the edge of the road, waiting for the passage of any event. 

But perhaps this is all too far gone, given Morice's statement in an interview: J’ai fait ça grossièrement, sans trop m’appliquer ! Si j’avais su que cela attirerait les regards, je me serai appliqué un peu plus (I did this roughly, without applying too much! If I had known that it would attract attention, I would have applied a little more).

Morice gave this interview in 2017. At that time he was 87 years old and he had worked for about twelve years on the art environment, which since the start in 2005 had got a large size, with its alignments with a length of over 200 meters. 

So in his late eighties Morice decided to end the further expansion of the site, partly because of his age, but also because the company where he bought the cement was closed.

* A large collection of pictures in the weblog of Sophie Lepetit (June/July 2017), alignmentsa first series of structures and a second series of structures
* Article (January 2017) in regional journal Ouest-France
* Article (January 2017) in Actu France

René Morice
Alignments of stone structures
Kerbescond (part of Pommerit-le-Vicomte), dept Côtes-d’Armor, region Brittany, France
can be seen from the road

July 17, 2019

Carmelo Librizzi, Parco d’Arte Bum Bum Gà/ Art park Bum Bum Gà

this picture from Facebook

The art park of Carmelo Librizzi located in Montevarchi, Italy, not yet known in the field of art environments, has recently been spotted by Francesco Galli and described on his website.

Life and works

Carmelo Librizzi was born in 1949 in Petralia Sottana, Sicily. In the 1950's the family migrated northward to Tuscany, where they settled in Montevarchi, a city of around 24.000 inhabitants, located some 50 kms south-east of Florence.

this picture and the next one: screenprints 
from the video by Roberto Polimeno in the documentation

Librizzi grew up in a very musical family, so already as a child music got his great interest and he started making music. playing a clarinet in particular. Living in Montevarchi, he was able to further develop his musical qualities by playing in the Corpo Musicale “G. Puccini". This popular local orchestra, in the period 1946-1963 conducted by Maestro Ugo Canocchi, also includes a music school where youngsters can study music.

In later decades Librizzi, who meanwhile had exchanged the clarinet for a saxophone, participated in various Italian bands. He was very interested in free jazz and experimental music and also acted as an arranger.

Librizzi had a wide interest in art. He also loved poetry and sculpture and after studying precision mechanics he also studied processing metal, stone and wood. Along this way he came to actually making sculptures himself.

this picture and the next three 
courtesy of  Francesco Galli

His sculptures, in wood, stone and metal, partly have a reminiscence with an "archaic" way of working and partly have a modern, conceptual and recycling-based approach.

In 1979, when he was around thirty years old, Librizzi came up with the idea of opening an art park where he could not only display the sculptures he meanwhile had created, but where also artistic happenings could take place, such as exhibitions and music performances. 

The park was realized on a plot of land of some 10.000 m² outside of Montevarchi. Librizzi planted trees that became large oaks, he sawed pine nuts that currently are big pines, and there are fruit trees.

The site got a name Librizzi loved because of its attractive rhythmic connotation: Bum Bum Gà, derived from the name of a small railway station in Austalia as present in a 1972 movie by Alberto Sordi.

In addition to the large size of Librizzi's artistic work, the arrangement of the works in this art environment also shows its diversity, both in terms of the varied use of materials, the style of work and the themes. He expresses himself equally easily in a figurative, realistic as in a conceptual way, and the visitor sometimes has to give an interpretation of the artwork himself.

For example, the heap of old bicycles maybe expresses Librizzi's message about the need of recycling and may invite to think about our modern lifestyle and the world in which we live, but at the same time it can been seen as a tribute to the cycling sport and evoke thoughts to the famous Italian rival cyclists Gino Bartali and Fausto Coppi.

Initially, the public expressed little interest in the art park, although Librizzi tried to involve the residents in the area with flyers and leaflets, but over the years, especially in the summer months, the site became a lively meeting place, with exposition, theatrical performances, concerts of groups of young people, meetings of owners of vintage cars, and so on.

40th anniversary of the Art Park

In 2019 Librizi's Art Park existed for forty years, which was celebrated in July with a festive gathering.

The video below (from Facebook) shows a moment of musical pleasure


* The Parco d'Arte Bum Bum Gá on Facebook
Antonella Fineschi & Carmelo Librizzi,  "Ma quanto costa il pane? ("But How Much is the Bread?"), biography of Carmelo Librizzi (available at the Park)
Maria Giovanna Cutini article (April 2013) in Top Life Magazine
* Interview with Librizzi (June 2016) in Italian webzine Backstage Press
* Francesco Galli, "Bum Bum Gà, La passione del fare", article (July 2019) with photos on his website
In addition to the videos presented below, You Tube also has a video made in 2012 in which Librizzi  talks about his work (in Italian)
* Video by Roberto Polimeno (September 2011, 1'52", You Tube)

* Video by Claudia Maffei (February 2012, 10'03", You Tube)   

Carmelo Librizzi
Parco d'Arte Bum Bum Gà
Via Borrolungo Campagna
52025 Montevarchi, province of Arezzo, region Tuscany, Italy
can be visited all year, 9-18 hrs